The objective of this article is to highlighting the use of Pipe Distribution Network (PDN) instead of Canal Distribution Network (CDN) to increase the overall project efficiency of irrigation project and thereby reducing the stresses due to water scarcity. In order to achieve maximum benefits from PDN, planning, designing, and construction of it should be carefully done. This paper provides a guideline for planning, designing and construction of PDN system for irrigation. It is recommended that PDN system could be economical and feasible over conventional CDN and this system is so flexible that it can be implemented as a new scheme or used to convert the existing CDN.
Health and Safety policies have led to the recommendation of alternative tests to evaluate
the resistance to dichloromethane to estimate the degree of gelation of rigid PVC pipes
In this work, we confirm that DSC is the best alternative method for evaluating the degree
of gelation of rigid PVC pipes, using the relation between the enthalpy of fusion of primary
and secondary crystallites, which were measured from respective endotherms.
The suitability of this method is established by comparison with experimental results
obtained with the test for determining the resistance to dichloromethane. Indeed, this
method has proven to be fairly reliable and is the only one that allows the quantification of
the degree of gelation.
Polyethylene (PE) is a thermoplastic material produced from ethylene polymerization. Polyethylene pipes are produced through extrusion in different dimensions from½ inch to 63 inches. Polyethylene can be produced in various dimensions in the form of a coil or in a straight up to 40 feet long.
The pipe and PVC fittings pressure should be 1.5 times the working pressure of the piping system, but should not be less than 0.60 MPa. Before testing water pressure, Note safety principles and protection regulations for pressure pipes. The following steps should be inspected in the hydrostatic test of the pipe and PVC fittings, respectively:placing the lid at the end of the pipe, slow water entry, gas pipelines are an exception, boiling water after inspection is required…
Plastic materials are very elastic and malleable. They can be molded, pressed, or cast into different shapes. They are mostly made from petroleum and natural gas. There are two types of plastics; thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers.
While thermosetting polymers can be melted and molded only once, staying solid once it is cooled, thermoplastics can be melted and molded repeatedly and are therefore recyclable.
Thermoplastics are used in the manufacture of containers, bottles, fuel tanks, folding tables and chairs, sheds, plastic bags, cable insulators, ballistic plates, pool toys, upholstery, clothing, and for piping systems.